Issues and Insights on COVID-19
“During the COVID-19 pandemic, we recognize the need for knowledge to shape behavior, evidence to influence policies, and frameworks to guide decision making. My colleagues at Penn and I offer our insights and experience to help you navigate these times from an informed perspective.”
~ Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD, PhD
Ethics, Policy, and COVID-19 is a special production from the faculty and online education team of the Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the University of Pennsylvania.
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- Vaccine Incentives
- Research, Racism, and Health Inequities
- A Mitigation Strategy for Schools
- Vaccine Distribution: Age and Ethics
- Disadvantage Indices and Equitable Vaccine Allocation
- Strategies for National COVID-19 Vaccine Promotion
- COVID-19: Transmissions, Risks, and Reopenings
- COVID-19 Vaccine Emergency Use Authorization
- Leadership in a Time of Uncertainty and Change
- Other Relevant Resources
“Perspective: Incentives for Immunity — Strategies for Increasing Covid-19 Vaccine Uptake” by Kevin G. Volpp, MD, PhD, and Carolyn C. Cannuscio, ScD, New England Journal of Medicine.
Published May 26, 2021
Creative incentives, such as lotteries for cash, aim to drive vaccine uptake. However, the sustainability of incentives should be taken into account. Kevin Volpp and his co-author offer behaviorally informed strategies designed to protect health and economic health.
“Opinion: Is It OK to Offer a Shot at Lottery Money to Get People Vaccinated? As Bioethicists We Say Yes” by Emily A. Largent, JD, PhD, RN, and Holly Fernandez Lynch, JD, MBe, Philadelphia Inquirer.
Published May 24, 2021
Bioethicists Emily Largent and Holly Fernandez Lynch evaluate the ethics of offering vaccine payments and other incentives for Americans as the pace of COVID-19 vaccination slows.
“Perspective: A Hundred Bucks or a Chance at $1 Million: What’s the Better Vaccine Incentive?” by Kevin Volpp, MD, PhD, Washington Post. May 17, 2021.
“Perspective: Yes, It’s Legal for Businesses and Schools to Require You to Get a Coronavirus Vaccine” by Holly Fernandez Lynch, JD, MBe, Washington Post. May 4, 2021.
“States Are One-Upping Each Other with Vaccine Rewards — But Will It Work?” by Elizabeth Yuko, Rolling Stone. May 18, 2021. Experts interviewed include Emily A. Largent, JD, PhD, RN.
Research, Racism, and Health Inequities
“Understanding and Mitigating Health Inequities — Past, Current, and Future Directions” by Risa J. Lavizzo-Mourey, MD, MBA; Richard E. Besser, MD; and David R. Williams, PhD, MPH New England Journal of Medicine.
Published May 6, 2021
This NEJM Perspective piece recounts the history of research on health disparities in the U.S. and the role of systems of structural racism in health disparities. Emerita professor Risa Lavizzo-Mourey and co-authors call for more effective interventions to address bias and advance health equity.
A Mitigation Strategy for Schools
“Minimal SARS-CoV-2 Transmission After Implementation of a Comprehensive Mitigation Strategy at a School” by Kevin G. Volpp, MD, PhD; Bruce H. Kraut, MD, PhD; et al. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Published March 19, 2021
Frequent testing, universal masking, technology-enhanced contact tracing, quarantine protocols, and an enforced behavioral agreement helped prevent spread of COVID-19 in a New Jersey high school. Kevin Volpp and co-authors conclude that adhering to such a strategy demonstrates the feasibility of mitigating spread in academic settings.
“Testing, Contact Tracing and Consequences for Not Following Rules Reduced COVID-19 Spread in NJ School” by Hannah Kanik. Philly Voice. March 19, 2021.
Vaccine Distribution: Age and Ethics
“Opinion: Age-based vaccine distribution is not only unethical. It’s also bad health policy.” by Emily A. Largent, JD, PhD, RN; Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD, PhD; and Govind Persad, JD, PhD, Washington Post
Published March 9, 2021
In this op-ed, Penn professors Emily A. Largent and Zeke Emanuel, along with Govind Persad, advocate for equitable distribution of vaccines by considering various high-risk factors—not only age—when crafting ethical policy for vaccine distribution. “Simplicity and speed are valuable,” they state, “but equity and fairness should not be abandoned in the pursuit.”
Rationing Care – A free, 2-hour continuing education course by Zeke Emanuel and MEHP Online Education.
Disadvantage Indices and Equitable Vaccine Allocation
Disadvantaged communities have been hit disproportionately hard by COVID-19. Vaccination offers an opportunity to address both social justice and public health needs—if policies and distribution practices make equity and allocation central issues. Faculty member Harald Schmidt shares a way to move forward using disadvantage indices to address 1) how vaccines are allocated to states and 2) how vaccines are allocated to the population with states.
Harald Schmidt, PhD, an Assistant Professor of Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Penn, focuses his research on improving opportunity and reducing disadvantage for marginalized populations in health promotion and health care priority setting.
Strategies for National COVID-19 Vaccine Promotion
“Behaviorally Informed Strategies for a National COVID-19 Vaccine Promotion Program” by Kevin G. Volpp, MD, PhD; George Loewenstein, PhD; Alison M. Buttenheim, PhD, MBA, JAMA Network
Published December 14, 2020
The COVID-19 vaccine is rolling out slowly and unevenly across the US. In this viewpoint from JAMA Network, faculty member Kevin G. Volpp, MD, PhD and co-authors propose five strategies informed by behavioral science to promote COVID-19 vaccination nationwide. They share implementation considerations to help drive safe and effective uptake and acceptance.
COVID-19: Transmissions, Risks, and Reopenings
What have we learned in the several months since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the WHO? Zeke Emanuel answers the following questions:
- How does COVID-19 spread?
- What risk factors increase exposure of COVID-19 transmission—and what activities have lower or higher risk?
- What are superspreader events?
- How can schools and businesses be reopened safely?
Zeke Emanuel is a highly sought-after expert in health care, advising the Obama Administration and the WHO. He is a global voice of knowledge and reason during the pandemic—and a visionary in online education for health care professionals.
COVID-19 Risk Index (graphic mentioned in the video)
School Opening and COVID-19: Medical, Educational, and Policy Considerations (panel discussion moderated by Holly Fernandez Lynch, JD, MBe, recorded December 18, 2020)
COVID-19 Vaccine Emergency Use Authorization
“The Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Emergency Use Authorization: Five takeaways” by Katherine Unger Baillie, Penn Today
Published December 11, 2020
The COVID-19 vaccine by Pfizer-BioNTech was the first to receive approval by the FDA for distribution in the U.S. In this article from Penn Today, Medical Ethics faculty member Holly Fernandez Lynch, JD, MBe, answers questions about the emergency use authorization (EUA) process and its impact.
Leadership in a Time of Uncertainty and Change
Starting with the evidence-based statement that during times of uncertainty and change, leaders’ decisions have greater impact, Mike Useem offers expert guidance for leaders today. Topics include:
- Personal leadership strategies for making effective decisions
- How organizational architecture and culture drive strategy
- Creating a mission-driven plan
- The qualities of a complete leader
Michael Useem, PhD, is a Professor of Management and Faculty Director of the Leadership Center and McNulty Leadership Program at the Wharton School.
Atul Kalanuria, MD, FACP, MHCI, is a neurointensivist at the University of Pennsylvania and an alumnus of the Master of Health Care Innovation at Penn.
“It’s Your Leadership Moment” from Knowledge@Wharton by Michael Useem, PhD, published March 30.
In this opinion piece published by Knowledge@Wharton, Michael Useem, PhD, addresses:
- the potential for leadership at all levels
- the three most essential leadership actions, with recent examples from various industries and government
- a personal checklist for exercising your own leadership.